Understand of Mount Bromo Tengger Semeru – This a national park is named after its two mountains, Mount Semeru (the highest in Java 3,676 m), Mount Bromo (the most popular) and the Tengger people who inhabit the area.
Mount Semeru also known as Mahameru (“Gunung Agung”), is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia. The most striking thing about this mountain is the fact that it erupts periodically (and very reliably). Every 20 minutes or so, the volcano pours down a huge cloud of steam and smoke, sometimes interspersed with ash and rock. Climbing Mount Semeru requires some planning and permission from the park authorities. This mountain is often closed due to its very active nature.
Mount Bromo (2,329 m) is easily recognizable because the entire upper part has been destroyed and the crater in it constantly contaminates white sulfur fumes. We provide Bromo Tour Package. The place is inside a massive Tengger caldera. with a diameter of about 10km, is surrounded by the Sand Sea (Sea of Sand) fine volcanic sand. The overall effect does not make any sense unnaturally, especially when compared to the lush green valleys around the caldera.
The main access point is Cemoro Lawang (also Cemara Lawang or Cemora Lawang – blame East Java accent!) At the northeast end of the caldera, but there are also trails from Tosari (northwest) and Ngadas (southwest). Ngadisari village, on the road from Probolinggo about 5.5 km before Cemoro Lawang, marks the entrance of the national park. Both Cemoro Lawang and Ngadisari are rather beautiful, with the house painted brightly and the expanse of flowers outside.
The area in and around the park is inhabited by the Tenggerese, one of the few significant Hindu communities remaining on the island of Java. The local religion is a remnant of the Majapahit era and therefore very similar to Bali but even with other animist elements. The Tenggerese are believed to be descendants of the Majapahit princes and taken to the hills after mass arrivals in the pious Madurese area of the 19th century. These Madurese immigrants were laborers working for Dutch coffee planters and indigenous Hindu inhabitants in the region soon found out that they were losing a lot and converting to Islam or fleeing to the unfriendly high mountain peak where they live today.
This religion is quite low although it can be (of course compared to Bali) with the most visible manifestation of faith is the rather hard Poten temple in the sea of sand. The number of Tengger people is about 600,000 and they live in 30 villages scattered in and around parks with smaller communities elsewhere in East Java.
For many visitors, Tengger’s rancid-faced, sun-burned, mustache-wrapped, poncho-like blanket ran on a pony with rugged mountains like its background, more like Peru than Indonesia! We provide Bromo Tour Package.
Roro Anteng and Joko Seger
The Javanese folktale says that in the 15th century, Princess Roro Anteng (daughter of King Majapahit Brawijaya) and her husband Joko Seger escaped to launch Islamic powers, which ended safely at Mount Bromo. Here they developed a new empire, and named it Teng-ger using parts from their respective family names.
The Kingdom of Tengger prospered and their religion developed, but the royal couple could not produce the heir to the throne. Desperately they pray and meditate in Bromo for a few days before the crater is opened and the almighty god Widi Wasa announces that they will be given children, on condition that the last sacrifice should be sacrificed back to the mountain. We provide Bromo Tour Package.
No less than 25 children were produced, but years later Roro and Joko broke his condition and refused to sacrifice their last victim, Prince Kesuma. A terrific eruption of Bromo followed and swallowed Kesuma into the crater. To appease the great God, Kesuma’s brothers and sisters held a sacrificial ceremony at the crater once a year, and this is still happening today – the famous Kasada ceremony is held on the full moon of the 12th (Kasada) month of the Tengger calendar.
If a landscape was ever needed to demonstrate the meaning of a lonely expression of purity, then surely this indeed is. Rough, barren volcanic peaks, gravel plains and sand oceans. Really worldly.
The park also covers a vast area that is very fertile and green is fed by rivers from high peaks. Medium elevations coated with thinner forests gave way to highlands and barren peaks.
Plants and Animals
In the most desirable part of the park (caldera and mountain peak) the flora and fauna are limited by the lack of vegetation. At lower altitudes and away from the ocean of sand, though there is a lush green valley with distinctive tropical forest flora. The elevation is higher before the end of the tree line is mostly covered by pine forest (casuarina).
In the valley, some leopard cat is present but rarely seen. Java deer deer, muntjac, marbled cats and wild pigs are among the mammals that are more likely to be seen by regular visitors. This park is not so famous for bird watching as everyone else in Java, but in the highlands you often see eagles and eagles soaring above the valley below. We provide Bromo Tour Package.
Temperatures are refreshing during the day but are blatantly cold at night because temperatures can drop to zero in the dry season and rarely above 5 ° C in the wet season. Daytime temperatures anywhere in the park never exceed 20 ° C with normal low teenagers.
The rain can go down anytime and the average rainfall average of 6.6m is best measured in meters, not mm! Most of which come in the rainy season though – November to March. During periods of heavy rainfall in January and February, many parts of the park are inaccessible due to flooding. Landslips is also a real problem in these times.
In late 2010 and early 2011 volcanic ash and incandescent materials were thrown by eruption activity with heavy rain of volcanic material thrown around the crater. Continuous eruption on January 21 caused thin ash to fall mainly in Ngadirejo village and Sukapura Wonokerto area, Probolinggo regency. The impact of heavy rain and volcanic ash from eruptions during December 2010 and January 2011 resulted in disruption of normal activities and the local economy. The potential for environmental damage and long-term health problems among residents around Mount Bromo was very important at the time. We provide Bromo Tour Package.
Due to the high seasonal rainfall in January 2011 the potential of lava (lava cold) and lava flows (hot lava) increased due to sediment of volcanic ash, sand and other materials that he built. Activity is dominated by vibration vibration, ash eruption and incandescent release.
People living on the banks of the Boat River, Nganten Ravine and Sukapura Rivers are told of high lava flows, especially if there is further rain in the area around Cemorolawang, Ngadisari and Ngadirejo. Volcanic eruptions and volcanoes were reported on January 21 and January 22 with activity subside on January 23, 2011.
The park was reopened for visitors in April 2011.